The Constitutional Evolution of Puerto Rico and Other US Territories (1898-Present) written by Gustavo A. Gelpí, a federal judge currently sitting in Puerto Rico, collects a series of former historical essays along with new material about the various overseas possessions of the United States past and present. The author explains in detail the birth of the American Empire in 1898 when the nation expanded beyond the North American continent and acquired from Spain three of its former colonies : Puerto Rico, Philippines and Guam, while also annexed the former Kingdom of Hawai’i. This quest for military and economic global supremacy continued as the United States further acquired other overseas territories including the former Panama Canal Zone. These island territories to date continue to be treated as colonies as the United States has not extended full constitutional protections and rights to its citizens living therein. In the twenty first century those very citizens cannot vote for the President nor members of the federal congress, and thus, continue to be governed in the twenty first century by a system of federal laws enacted by the metropolis and as to which the sacrosanct democratic principle of consent of the governed is a fallacy.